Macular Disease Foundation Australia logo

    Eating for eye health

    An eye-healthy diet will help keep your macula healthy. In some situations, additional supplements may be appropriate.

    Image of a woman holding two bunches of fresh spinach

    The right nutrition can optimise macular health, so an eye-healthy diet is important in reducing the risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). It could also slow the progression of AMD.

    Eating a healthy, well balanced diet, which includes eye friendly foods, will benefit your overall wellbeing, as well as your eye health.

    An appropriate dietary supplement may help, if your consumption of eye health foods is inadequate.

    Some vitamins and minerals, whether obtained through food or supplements, can interfere with certain medications.

    An eye healthy diet

    Keep your eyes healthy by following this guide:


    Nutrition for AMD fact sheet

    Download now or visit 'Resources' and we'll send you a FREE copy in the mail.


    Nutrients for macular health

    Lutein and zeaxanthin

    Important antioxidants for eye health include lutein (pronounced loo-teen) and zeaxanthin (pronounced zee-ah-zan-thin). These are present in high concentrations in a healthy macula and help to protect your eyes.

    Dark green leafy vegetables such as spinach, kale and silverbeet are high in lutein and zeaxanthin. To a lesser extent, you’ll find these nutrients in other vegetables such as corn, yellow capsicum, peas, pumpkin and Brussels sprouts and eggs.

    Image shows raw kale on a kitchen bench.
    Kale is one of the dark green leafy vegetables, rich in eye healthy nutrients.


    Omega-3 fatty acids are also important to eye health. All fish and shellfish contain Omega-3s. Oily varieties of fish – such as salmon, mackerel, anchovies, and trout – contain higher concentrations of Omega-3.

    Aim to eat fish or seafood (fresh, frozen or tinned) two or three times a week.

    Other nutrients

    Other nutrients that support good macular health are:

    • zinc (oysters, seafood, nuts, and legumes)
    • vitamin E (nuts and grains)
    • vitamin C (citrus fruit, berries, and tomatoes)
    • selenium (nuts, particularly Brazil nuts).

    Low GI carbohydrates

    The glycemic index (GI) ranks carbohydrates in foods according to how they affect blood glucose levels.

    High GI carbohydrates produce a large, rapid rise in blood glucose. Low GI carbohydrates cause a lower, slower rise in blood glucose. Evidence shows eating more low GI foods lowers your risk of developing AMD.

    Low GI foods include most fruit and vegetables, wholegrain cereals, wholegrain breads, and legumes. GI only applies to carbohydrates, so protein and dairy don’t have a GI.

    People who have low GI diets tend to have a lower incidence of heart disease, obesity, diabetes and AMD. They also tend to have lower cholesterol.

    Dietary supplements

    If you’re not getting the nutrition you need from an eye healthy diet, dietary supplements may be appropriate. However, consult your doctor to discuss your options.